Constans grew increasingly fearful that his younger brother, Theodosius, could oust him from the throne; he therefore obliged Theodosius to take holy orders and later had him killed in 660. Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D. (Or Heraclonas, April - Sep 641) Philip Grierson (DOC II) and Cecile Morrisson (Morrisson BnF) attribute this type to the short reign of Heraclonas, April - Sep 641 A.D. SH94501. Constans II, in response to this, imprisoned the pope and made sure he received. Although on friendly terms with Vitalian, he stripped buildings, including the Pantheon, of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople, and in 666 declared the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged almost everywhere by the rising Arab Caliphate. In 659 CE a peace was signed between the two powers with the Byzantines having to pay a massive tribute. He also was the last emperor to become consul in 642, [1] [2] becoming the last Roman consul in history. While the Bulgars had thus deprived the empire of control in the north and central Balkans, the Byzantines could take comfort in the expeditions of 658 and 688/689 launched, respectively, by Constans II and Justinian II into Macedonia and in the formation of the themes of Thrace (687) and Hellas (695). Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. [3] After the death of Constantine III's father Heraclius, Constantine ruled with his half-brother Heraklonas through Heraclius' second marriage to Martina. [13][verification needed] These histories also record that the Arabs (Da shi 大食) sent their commander "Mo-yi" (Chinese: 摩拽伐之, Pinyin: Mó zhuāi fá zhī), to besiege the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, and forced the Byzantines to pay them tribute. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Latin: Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. p. 312. – 1643 C.E. The same year he concluded peace with the Arabs. He had rescued the empire from disaster when Constantinople was besieged in 626 CE but had lost Jerusalem to the Persians. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II.[10]. Not particularly popular (either at home or in Syracuse), subject to several rebellions, despised by half the Church and with too many failures on the battlefield, he would not be missed by many, but he had, at the very least, ensured there was still an empire to pass on to his successors. Home Crime Crime by century 7th-century crime 7th-century murdered monarchs Constans II. Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. Stanford University Press. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold Period: 656-668 Constans II and the Byzantine navy Cosentino, Salvatore 2008-04-01 00:00:00 SALVATORE COSENTINO/RAVENNA At the beginning of the twentieth century John B. Now the Emperor ordered his Exarch of Ravenna to arrest the Pope. Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Constans ordered Saburrus, the commander of his army, to attack the Lombards again, but he was defeated by the Beneventani at Forino, between Avellino and Salerno. On 15 September 668, he was assassinated in his bath by his chamberlain,[11] according to Theophilus of Edessa, with a bucket. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. Books With Constans II’s death in 668, Constantine IV became the senior emperor. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education The truce that followed allowed a short respite and made it possible for Constans to hold on to the western portions of Armenia. [6] In 648 the Arabs raided into Phrygia, and in 649 they launched their first maritime expedition against Crete. The captured Slavs from that campaign were forcibly relocated to Asia Minor and then conscripted into the Byzantine army. At the age of 21 he personally led … Cartwright, M. (2017, December 07). His son Constantine succeeded him as Constantine IV. Cite This Work A Byzantine fleet under the admiral Manuel occupied Alexandria again in 645, and the Alexandrians hailed him as a liberator, since the caliphate levied heavier taxes and showed less respect for their religion. But I think both opinions should be given, with greater weight on Constans II. pp. Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Pseudo-Byzantine types. SH73336. Struck circa 647-670. "θὲς ἄλλῳ νὶκην", see Bury, John Bagnell (1889). Biography of Constans II (excerpt) Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), (November 7, 630 – September 15, 668) was Byzantine emperor from 641 to 668. The Byzantine Empire was crumbling at the edges, there were revolts in North Africa and Italy, and Constans could have been forgiven for thinking it could not possibly get any worse. The latter fell in battle against the army of Caliph Uthman, and the region remained a vassal state under the Caliphate until civil war broke out and imperial rule was again restored. Constans II uses the Muslim civil war to reorganise the Roman military in the East. Due to rumors that Heraklonas and Martina poisoned Constantine III, Constans II was named co-emperor. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constans_II/. Continue Reading. Later that same year, his uncle was deposed by the general Valentinus, one of Heraclius’ most trusted generals, and Constans II was left as sole emperor. While the Caliphate was busy deciding who should be the next caliph, Constans did not waste any time and invaded northern Greece. [12] The same books also described Constantinople in some detail as having massive granite walls and a water clock mounted with a golden statue of man. Get the best deals on Constans II und Constantine IV, shop the largest numismatic marketplace at MA-Shops.com Heraclius had ruled as emperor since 610 CE, and his reign was a mixed one. By his wife Fausta, a daughter of the patrician Valentinus, Constans II had three sons: Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian dynasty. Solidus of Constans II (from Dumbarton Oaks coin collection) The Themes in 668 AD from A History of the Byzantine State and Society by Warren Treadgold However, having attracted the hatred of the citizens of Constantinople, Constans decided to leave the capital and to move to Syracuse in Sicily. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Thank you! Only by switching clothes with an ordinary seaman did Constans escape while the entire fleet (and the unfortunate seaman) were sent to the bottom of the Mediterranean. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. In 647 they entered Armenia and Cappadocia and sacked Caesarea Mazaca. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. He was the last emperor to serve as consul, in 642. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He also was the last emperor to become consul … Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he, and the Senate acting as his regent, had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. 23-25;72-3. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries. [12] The Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, writing during the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), relayed information about China's geography, its capital city Khubdan (Old Turkic: Khumdan, i.e. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981. Constans attempted to steer a middle line in the church dispute between Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibiting further discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ by decree in 648 (the Type of Constans). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Constans responded by having the Constantinople Senate declare the Pope guilty of treason and exiling Martin to Cherson in the Crimea in 654 CE on the excuse that he had supported Olympios, the rebel governor of Byzantine Ravenna. Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. According to Warren Treadgold, the first themes were created between 659 and 661, during the reign of Constans II. However, Manuel squandered his time and popularity in plundering the countryside, and eventually the Arab army managed to force him to embark for home. [12] Other contacts are reported taking place in 667, 701, and perhaps 719, sometimes through Central Asian intermediaries. 649 or 667). A brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius was quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Add your article. Exarch Olympius excused himself from this task, but his successor, Theodore I Calliopas, carried it out in 653. The Arabs imploded in a bloody civil war which would last until 661 CE and divert their attention from further foreign conquests. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Like so many of his predecessors, he faced endless revolts and usurpers and met his death at the hands of an assassin while taking a bath. In 649 CE Cyprus was attacked, one of the empire's major naval bases, and though the island remained a shared property thereafter, the Arabs managed to sack the capital Constantia and destroy the harbour installations. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated. When Constantine died in mysterious circumstances a few months later, Martina was able to act as regent for her son Heraklonas, even declaring herself co-emperor. Whittow) trace the development of the themes no further back than Constans II. territory in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death. Bury saw in Constans II the creator of the Byzantine navy.1 Even if this assumption has been contradicted by some authoritative scholars, as H. Ahrweiler,2 other historians over the last century have agreed with it3 and this has been … Constans was the son of Constantine III and Gregoria. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Ancient History Encyclopedia. He organized the Anatolikon and Opsikion themes in Asia Minor against the Arabs, who continued to tear away at imperial possessions. When Heraclius died in 641 CE, he had two heirs who ruled as co-emperors: Heraklonas (whose mother was Martina) and Constantine III (whose mother was Heraclius’ first wife Eudokia). The Strategiai System was what might be called the proto-theme system that Constans II implemented so that the empire might better cope with its reduced resources and … Then, in the winter of 662-663, he made his camp at Athens.[9]. Cartwright, Mark. The emperor attempted some sort of reconciliation and came bearing gifts which included a gold pallium or cloth; then he promptly stripped the city of as much bronze he could find, spiriting away statues and even the bronze roof tiles of churches and the copper roofing of the Pantheon. In 659 he campaigned far to the east, taking advantage of a rebellion against the Caliphate in Media. [12] These are recorded as having begun in the year 643 with an embassy sent by the king Boduoli (波多力, Constans II Pogonatos) to Emperor Taizong of Tang, bearing gifts such as red glass and green gemstones. The plausible solution to why Constans reacts after the Battle of the Masts, is that Constans ended The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and... Notebook: Coin Portraying Emperor Constans or Emperor Constantius II... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Under Constans, the Byzantines completely withdrew from Egypt in 642, and Caliph Uthman launched numerous attacks on the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. Byzantine Empire, Constans II and Constantine IV, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D. The sea battle was so devastating that the emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men. But he was a quick learner and a talented general. Meanwhile, Constans’ campaigns against the Lombards in Italy in 663 CE did not make much headway, although Sardinia had been held in 645 CE. 11 Jan 2021. The primary sources seem to favor Heraclius. In a time where war was constant, the Byzantine army was a formidable force. Constans owed his rise to the throne to a popular reaction against his uncle and to the protection of the soldiers led by the general Valentinus. He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter. Constans II (Greek: Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II Latin: Heraclius Constantinus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus); 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Kōnstantinos Pogonatos), was Byzantine Emperor from 641 to 668. During the journey from Benevento to Naples, Constans II was defeated by Mitolas, Count of Capua, near Pugna. [7] Before the battle, chronicler Theophanes the Confessor says, the Emperor dreamed of being at Thessalonika; this dream predicted his defeat against the Arabs because the word Thessalonika is similar to the sentence "thes allo niken", which means "gave victory to another (the enemy)". ] in the Empire and the most important source of grain caliph, Constans II ( aka II... 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