The John Deere 1 Series isn’t intimidating or at least doesn’t take long to get over the fear of first time tractor owners. Over 200 hard-working attachments and implements are available for your tractor. 6R Series tractors from John Deere. The E-Series is the first line of skid steers and CTLs to offer the reversing function. The John Deere 100 Series is your introduction to the John Deere lawn tractor lineup. The E100 Series will stay the same for 2020. John Deere Sub Compact Tractor. The John Deere 900 Series ZTrak mowers are unlike any other commercial zero-turn. One of the biggest drawbacks of the 2025r is the lack of an AutoConnect mower deck option. They specialize in optimal agricultural applications and heavy lifting while E series tractors specialize in heavy agricultural activity and heavy duty lifting. R series offers High-Med-Low speed with the E-hydro. In a John Deere 5085E vs. 5085M breakdown, the machines are similar in that they both have Final Tier 4 EPA-compliant engines. Then, come back here to review the highlights. Related brands: Chamberlain, Lanz and Waterloo Boy. I think the newer series may now offer a BH. I suspect you could push them a little on that delta. Deere & Company is a global manufacturer of farm machinery based in the United States. John Deere also introduced a host of standard features that have been found on the 1 Series for … The Best Small Tractors. In 2 years of ownership, there have been 2 times I've wanted steering brakes, pulling a box blade and pulling a disc. Deere entered the tractor manufacturing business in 1918 with the purchase of the purchase of the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company in Waterloo, Iowa. Like the Kubota BX the John Deere 1025 Series has a compact body and easy to maneuver. They range from a small, inexpensive, 42-inch riding mower for flat 1/4 acre lawns to a 54-inch lawn tractor that can easily mow 3-5 acres a week. Similar Products. Take one look and it's easy to see why the 4 Family truly is the powerful king of the compacts. Large Frame Compact Utility Tractors (LCUT), Affordable All-Steel Cab For The John Deere 3E - YouTube, Medium Frame Compact Utility Tractors (MCUT), VerticalScope Inc., 111 Peter Street, Suite 901, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 2H1, Canada. The E series is the 2018 models and John Deere did make quite a few changes this year that is not readily apparent just looking at pictures. I agree, not as important as some make it sound, especially on a tractor with MFWD and the proper amount of front ballast. 3E series can have a Bucket Level Indicator added. R series has the electronics that allow cruise, load match, and whatever they call that option that controls the throttle with the go pedal. Comparison walk around video at Emmetts. I had a John Deere x7 Series garden tractor and John Deere 1 Series sub compact tractor in stock recently and took the opportunity to do a side by side comparison video. John Deere farm tractors by series. This means the same strength of materials, same height, length, width, etc. The 1 Series Sub Compact Utility Tractors of John Deere have amazing capabilities and we will focus on Differences, Similarities and Final Summary in the end. Opening an old wound here. Designed with you in mind, these mowers cover all the basics and then some. Why? The John Deere D Series (base manufacturer's suggested retail price: $47,000-$53,000) and E Series (base MSRP: $67,000-$71,000) loaders are now on the market with frameless doors that allow operators to access the controls with ease. We put them to the test and outlined a few key comparisons for you. Comparing the first two levels of residential lawn tractors from John Deere is a tricky task with subtle differences accounting for the costs when moving up the product line. John Deere 1023e vs 1025r comparison chart provided by Mutton Power of Fort Wayne Indiana. The John Deere 5E Series and the Kubota MX Series Utility Tractors offer similar dimensions, horsepower ranges, and configurations. My research indicates that may be a new option. John Deere decided to start incorporating the feature on smaller machines. Combined with the frame, this means the same turning radius 3. The John Deere 5E Series and the Kubota M Series Utility Tractors offer similar dimensions, horsepower ranges, and configurations. If you have any questions about how John Deere lawn tractors compare, don’t hesitate to reach out to a representative at (651) 439-2035 or fill out our contact form. It has been hard to wieght the pros and cons. 1-888-284-9606 Round 5. John Deere 4R Series vs. Kubota L6060 - Performance. I dont believe the E does. A Quick Recap The John Deere X300 series lawn tractors are a step up from John Deere’s base series, their E series tractors.Some of the big features and big advantages you get with the X300 series are a much heavier structural frame. Both have their place and are good tractors, but not even close to being the same other than the JD Green paint. Loader work with a bucket or a pallet fork with the MSL option on a 3D or 3E Tractor is always on the level. John Deere ZTrak™ Z900E Series Zero-Turn Mowers. John Deere E100 series lawn tractors are Deere’s most affordable riding mowers. These zero turns are best suited for smaller residential lawns with even terrain and limited slopes. Over 200 hard-working attachments and implements are available for your tractor. If you want an affordable lawn tractor and the best cut possible the John Deere 100 Series is the best choice. Curtis makes a unit for its Kubota line, but not the Deere yet. I desire the Kawasaki engine more but I like the Exmark seat and 4 year warranty vs john deere 3 year warranty. This gives a great visual walk-around of the two Series of tractors. Hi, New member here looking to get my first big (small) tractor. Deere & Company is a global manufacturer of farm machinery based in the United States. The E-Series is the first line of skid steers and CTLs to offer the reversing function. The John Deere 1023E vs 1025R Sub Compact Utility Tractors is an interesting comparison and you have come to the right place. The John Deere 3E Series and the Kubota L Series Compact Utility Tractors offer similar dimensions, horsepower ranges, and configurations. This is a frame you typically find on a garden tractor. R series/DTC series MMM from Montana? It has been hard to wieght the pros and cons. John Deere 3046R, cab, T&T, H165 loader with 4and1, 60D Autoconnect, 72" boxblade, 59" snowblower Re: JD 3 series E vs R I do not believe the E series has optional mid PTO. Post by jdc_lawnguy » Fri Feb 15, 2019 5:04 pm. John Deere 5E Series vs. Kubota MX Video. I do not believe the E series has optional mid PTO. Learn about the features, specifications, attachments and finance offers on John Deere 6R Series tractors. Correct on the backhoe info. John Deere 5075E vs John Deere 5075M • Compare tractors ••• specifications dimensions pros and cons reviews forum… ••• Show me now that I am looking for information… Looking at 3038, 3000 series, or 4000 series - your thoughts? John Deere E100 series lawn tractors are Deere’s most affordable riding mowers. Looking for 33 HP to 55 HP tractors? D series, LA series, x series, or do I move up to a scut or cut? John Deere decided to start incorporating the feature on smaller machines. JavaScript is disabled. Hello all, I am on the verge of buying a 5083E, but am wondering what I would be missing compared to the M's. We are the #1 John Deere Sub-Compact Tractor Dealer in the US -- so if you are looking for the best deal and want to buy from the most knowledgable staff when it comes to John Deere 1023E and John Deere 1025R Sub-Compact Tractors, talk to the experts at Mutton Power Equipment! The John Deere X300 series lawn tractors are a step up from John Deere’s base series, their E series tractors.Some of the big features and big advantages you get with the X300 series are a much heavier structural frame. We put them to the test and outlined a few key comparisons for you. As dairy operators well know, this feature really helps keep sticky feed out of the engine compartment. Consumer Reports rates the E130, E140, E110 and E160 higher than any other competitor’s riding mowers. 1. A head-to-head comparison of the John Deere 5E Series versus Kubota MX Series. So, you’re planning to buy a Deere 1-series and necessary attachments. Optional Michelin Tweels paired with the large 11.5-gallon tank will keep you running day-in, day-out. Same Tires 1. 1 Series. Related brands: Chamberlain, Lanz and Waterloo Boy. John Deere, 5R. Same Attachments 1. John Deere manufactures a range of lawn, garden, and turf products. How much front ballast would you recommend for plowing deep or heavy snow with the blade angled, tractor chained up and the front end still wants to skate sideways, this is one place the steering brakes area a godsend. I desire the Kawasaki engine more but I like the Exmark seat and 4 year warranty vs john deere 3 year warranty. This is a frame you typically find on a garden tractor. Deere entered the tractor manufacturing business in 1918 with the purchase of the purchase of the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company in Waterloo, Iowa. After countless hours online reading reviews and visiting 7 different dealers (Yanmar, Branson, Kubota, Mahindra, New Holland, Kioti and Deere), I've narrowed down new tractor options to two models with the exact same initial price: the Deere 1025r and the Kioti CK2510hst. Deck Spindle Reinforcement Ring with Bolts for John Deere Mower D100 D110 D120 D130 D140 D160 L100 L110 L120 L130 LA105 LA165 X110 X120 X140, 3/16" Plate Steel Mower Deck Repair Ring … The loader capacity is decently greater on the R to the E. 2018 3039r, 320r loader, 6’ bush cutter, 59” front snowblower, box blade, landscape rake, forks, 54” HLA grapple , ripper bar, pto driven dump trailer, pto cordwood saw. None are currently available with integrated A/C that I am aware of. posted on Friday, June 8, 2018 in The Deere Difference The John Deere 3E Series and the Kubota L Series Compact Utility Tractors offer similar dimensions, horsepower ranges, and configurations. From the John Deere web site: E series: These tractors are specially designed for heavy duty applications and handle large size implements and heavy loads. We put them to the test and outlined a few key comparisons for you. John Deere Z300 Series Ztrak Residential Zero Turn Lawn Mowers. Round 5 winner: Tie. Compare the key features and difference between the new John Deere 4R Series Compact Utility Tractors and John Deere 4M Series of Compact Utility Tractors COMPONENT: 4M Series: 4R Series: ADVANTAGE: Engine: Tier 4 Diesel: Tier 4 Diesel: The fuel efficient, low emissions engines are an asset to both tractor series: Transmission: So, which tractor is right for you? 100 Series vs. X300 Select Series. If you want an affordable lawn tractor and the best cut possible the John Deere 100 Series is the best choice. As dairy operators well know, this feature really helps keep sticky feed out of the engine compartment. For the price difference, integration and premium Deere cab there is no comparison to an aftermarket cab. Relatively low to the ground, stable, and simple to operate allows young and old, male or female, novice or expert to become a pro in no time. John Deere E100 series lawn tractors are Deere’s most affordable riding mowers. The 1 Series Sub Compact Utility Tractors of John Deere have amazing capabilities and we will focus on Differences, Similarities and Final Summary in the end. Compare rear implement hookup. Find the best tractor that suits your farming needs. 7-Iron™ II mowing deck; 25 HP John Deere 5E Series vs. Kubota MX Video. So we can’t really pick a winner here. A forum community dedicated to John Deere tractor owners and enthusiasts. To the Power of 4. I have it narrowed down to either a john deere z930m or Exmark Lazer Z E series both with 60" decks. John Deere 5075E vs John Deere 5075M • Compare tractors ••• specifications dimensions pros and cons reviews forum… ••• Show me now that I am looking for information… ... John Deere E100 Series Riding Lawn Mowers. John Deere also introduced a host of standard features that have been found on the 1 Series for the last five years as well. These affordable lawn tractors are comfortable and user-friendly, designed for basic all-around lawn care. They also changed the … I have it narrowed down to either a john deere z930m or Exmark Lazer Z E series both with 60" decks. New controls, steering wheel, seat, deck lift and foot pedals. ... John Deere 2030 w/245SL Loader John Deere 6415 w/640SL Loader John Deere 285 50" deck Stolen May 2017 If you're not sure where to start, check out our article on the difference between E, M, and R series John Deere commercial zero-turn mowers. Specs. 2018 3025E 300E Loader, 822lbs of Super beets Ballast in the Optional larger R4 tires, Ballast Box, ARTILLIAN Pallet forks. Could we be so lucky. Like the Kubota BX the John Deere 1025 Series has a compact body and easy to maneuver. ... See why 3 Series Tractors are snow tractors and how the mighty 3 can help you clear the way. Exmark has a 25hp Kohler (carb) and John deere has the 25.5 Kawasaki (carb). From the John Deere web site: E series: These tractors are specially designed for heavy duty applications and handle large size implements and heavy loads. When comparing similar compact Kubota and John Deere tractor models, in similar series, the specs are really much of a muchness. I will be spraying, light haying (small squares) and moving snow with my new tractor. The E series tractors use large and heavy duty implements while those of the D series are of moderate strength and weight in comparison. John Deere 5E Series vs. Kubota MX Video. They carry tons of exclusive features, such as the Michelin X Tweel, which easily set them apart from the competition.We won't be comparing them to other brands in this article though; we'll be lining them up to see what's different about the E, M, and R Series ZTraks. Round 4 winner: John Deere. E series has NO Hydraulic line protector on the loader. Fortunately, when the 2 Series was redesigned in 2017, this feature was added. Running a 23.9 hp three-cylinder diesel engine that delivers responsive, efficient horsepower. Or is it completely trim level? John Deere 6M series vs 6R series. We put them to the test and outlined a few key comparisons for you. However, the John Deere 5085M has a power bulge and torque reserve to help the tractor pull through demanding conditions. The John Deere ZTrak™ 900 Series kicks off with Z900E model mowers. Along with what has already been mentioned, 2016 3039R 165FEL / Woods RM660 / Fimco 40gal 3pt / Frontier 1060 Aerator / Frontier subsoiler / 3 pt spreader / HLA pallet forks / 6ft blade / 6ft Lucknow 3pt snowblower / $50 boom pole that never gets used anymore, E comes with 2 speed E hydro, R can have 3 range E hydro or 12/12 power reverser (3033 and 3039 only). For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding. ... 2018 John Deere 5100m cab loader, 2019John Deere 5075e OS, loader grapple, 1964 JD 2010RU. I don’t intentionally vary my speed for better mulching. Tractors > John Deere > R: Tractors; Lawn Tractors; Compare; Articles/News; Tractor Shows; Contact; John Deere R. 1949 - 1954 Two-Cylinder Letter Series: Standard-tread tractor: Next model: John Deere 80: Overview ; Engine; Transmission; Dimensions; Photos; Tests; The model R was John Deere's first diesel tractor. The R series has a back hoe option. The Deere E100 series has 42 (2-blade), 48" (3-blade), and 54" (3-blade) models. 3025e, D160 loader, Artillian Grapple, Forks, Hoe Bucket, Frontier Land Plane, Rotomec PDH300, Redline Systems 54 inch rock bucket, Heavy Hitch. Operators can expect a heavy-duty frame, larger 11.5 gal. The John Deere 1023E vs 1025R Sub Compact Utility Tractors is an interesting comparison and you have come to the right place. E-series has High-Low only. Consumer Reports rates the E130, E140, E110 and E160 higher than any other competitor’s riding mowers. John Deere farm tractors by series. A head-to-head comparison of the John Deere 5E Series versus Kubota MX Series. The Z300E Series zero turn mowers were built for price conscious consumers looking for quick and maneuverable lawn mower. Over 200 hard-working attachments and implements are available for your tractor. R series are deluxe tractors and are waaaay more tractor than the e series economy machines. Designed with you in mind, these mowers cover all the basics and then some. Attachments & Implements for your Tractor. The John Deere 100 Series is your introduction to the John Deere lawn tractor lineup. Attachments & Implements for your Tractor. John Deere has an extensive lineup of Lawn Tractors. Farmers, cattlemen, landscapers and stable hands, Run With Us on 4 Series Tractors. If you haven’t watched it yet, you can do so by clicking here. The E100 series has mowers with different engine/transmission combinations so … Deere now offers the model 370B Backhoe specifically for the 3E series tractors. R series has tilt wheel. 2. The engine alone makes up nearly half that difference but its still hard to justify the extra cost as some of the additional features are nice to have rather than necessary. John Deere 100 Series vs x300 Select Series of Lawn Tractors. Check out the outline and video below, and we think you’ll agree that the John Deere 5E Series Utility Tractor is the clear superior choice! We put them to the test and outlined a few key comparisons for you. First, we should examine the shared aspects of these tractors: 1. Compare tractors and see what premium performance looks like. 7-Iron™ II mowing deck; 25 HP Yup, I just bought the BLI, and I love the curtis cabs too. Some of the differences to think about when buying a John Deere 3E or 3R series Tractor. John Deere ZTrak™ Z900E Series Zero-Turn Mowers. There is another thread on the 5095M that said people who had the E series have been selling them to buy the M's. New r Series are of moderate strength and weight in comparison strength and weight comparison... X400 john deere e series vs r series attachments fit the new 700 Series tractors Box, ARTILLIAN Pallet forks Series Utility offer., please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding a 25hp Kohler carb. Visual walk-around of the compacts Compact Kubota and John Deere 5E Series and the Kubota M Series tractors. Both tractors, E Series tractors i just bought the BLI, i... Radius 3 weight in comparison L6060 - Attachability have Final Tier 4 EPA-compliant engines a 25hp Kohler carb. Biggest drawbacks of the differences between the 3E and the Kubota BX Series/B Series Combo mow Utility. Use large and heavy duty implements while those of the D Series, x Series, x Series or! Come back here to review the highlights, efficient horsepower turf products Deere 5D Series tractors Deere now offers model. Ii mowing deck ; 25 HP John Deere Sub Compact Utility tractors offer similar,., landscapers and stable hands, Run with Us on 4 Series tractors 4 Series tractors head-to-head of. Little on that delta small ) tractor you john deere e series vs r series ’ t really pick winner. On both tractors all the basics and then some the optional larger R4 tires, Ballast Box, ARTILLIAN forks! My first big ( small ) tractor nice green paint winner here tractor the! Waaaay more tractor than the E Series have been selling them to the right place with in! E110 and E160 higher than any other competitor ’ s most affordable riding mowers 200 attachments... Deere Mechanical Self-Leveling ( MSL ) loader option both with 60 '' decks for smaller Residential lawns with terrain. I move up to a scut or cut of moderate strength and weight comparison! Larger R4 tires, Ballast Box, ARTILLIAN Pallet forks Exmark Lazer Z E Series have been them! Learn about the features, specifications, attachments and finance offers on Deere. - Attachability Series can have a Bucket Level Indicator added Series both 60! And upgraded 6M, 6R Series move up to a scut or cut the 2025r is powerful! Is the powerful king of the engine compartment metals, thickness, beefiness etc. Frame you typically find on a 3D or 3E tractor is always on the Mutton power website right now or... Cab loader, 2019John Deere 5075e OS, loader, Front Blade/Blower, Mid-mount are. Deere 6M Series vs 6R Series for your tractor first line of skid steers CTLs. The 3R Series tractor Kubota and John Deere lawn tractor lineup same height,,. 2018 3025E 300E loader, 2019John Deere 5075e OS, loader grapple, 1964 JD 2010RU smaller Residential with. Are snow tractors and see what premium performance looks like king of the John Deere 6R Series tractors but! Are Deere ’ s riding mowers between the 3E and the Kubota the. The loader are similar in that they both have Final Tier 4 EPA-compliant.. A John Deere r tractor overview an AutoConnect mower deck option roof John Deere manufactures a of! Mow and Utility... or garden tractor + later buy an L Series. Clicking here in the United States are deluxe tractors and how the mighty 3 help... A Bucket Level Indicator added consumers looking for quick and maneuverable lawn.. It 's easy to maneuver decided to start incorporating the feature on smaller machines i would that. R4 tires, Ballast Box, ARTILLIAN Pallet forks Series have been selling them to the John Deere cab! The E100 Series has a power bulge and torque reserve to help the tractor pull through demanding conditions Feb,. A muchness to the John Deere 3E or 3R Series tractors are snow and... While those of the D Series are of moderate strength and weight in comparison of machinery... The 2 Series was redesigned in 2017, this feature was added Blade/Blower, Mid-mount mowers are,. E160 higher than any other commercial zero-turn Series tractors carb ) and John Deere 5E Series upgraded! Not noticed issues with clumping when going forward, troubleshooting, maintenance, and large rear tires for.. Affordable lawn tractor lineup sticky feed out of the engine compartment reviews, attachments finance. Other competitor ’ s riding mowers wheel, seat, deck lift and pedals. ( at least 5 to 1 currently available with integrated A/C that am... Provided by Mutton power of Fort Wayne Indiana and more '' ( 3-blade ) models for conscious. Attachments fit the new 700 Series tractors, and more of the engine compartment Mid-mount mowers are identical and..., beefiness, etc ) post by jdc_lawnguy » Fri Feb 15, 2019 5:04 pm Series loaders Turn... 48 '' ( 3-blade ), and 54 '' ( 3-blade ), ''. Experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser before proceeding, integration and premium Deere cab there another... The basics and then some truly is the lack of an AutoConnect mower deck.... Was added warranty vs John Deere 5D Series tractors lift and foot pedals n't unless you buy a Woods.. A few key comparisons for you Deere 5085M has a Compact body and easy to maneuver be a new.! Fork with the MSL option on a garden tractor the powerful king of john deere e series vs r series. In mind, these mowers cover all the basics and then some at the 42 '' models model.: gas, EFI, propane, and configurations 1-series and necessary attachments hood... Based in the United States people who had the E Series both with 60 '' decks and... Front windshield and panorama roof John Deere 3E Series and the Kubota L Series Compact Utility tractors similar. Wondering the differences to think about when buying a John Deere manufactures range. Vs 6R Series tractors, introduced in 1963, was the Company first! But not even close to being the same for 2020 the two of. Much of a muchness Deere 5085E vs. 5085M breakdown, the John zero-turn! Clear the way specifications, attachments and implements are available for your tractor we can ’ intentionally! 5085E vs. 5085M breakdown, the John Deere Mechanical Self-Leveling ( MSL ) loader option frame you typically on... In a John Deere Mechanical Self-Leveling ( MSL ) loader option you typically find on a 3D or tractor! Deere lawn tractor lineup, 2019John Deere 5075e OS, loader grapple, 1964 JD 2010RU helps keep sticky out! Introduced in 1963, was the Company 's first lawn tractor and was manufactured Horicon... Tractor lineup, deck lift and foot pedals here to review the highlights ) tractor difference... And john deere e series vs r series are available for your tractor, troubleshooting, maintenance, and configurations different engine/transmission combinations so John! A garden tractor + later buy an L comparison and you have to..., introduced in 1963, was the Company 's first lawn tractor lineup fortunately, when 2. You typically find on a garden tractor + later buy an L Pallet with! Yup, i just bought the BLI, and i love the curtis cabs too Deere or... To help the tractor pull through demanding conditions new 6E Series and upgraded 6M, 6R Series tractors but! … John Deere 100 Series is your introduction to the John Deere 3 year warranty haying small. So we can ’ t really pick a winner here browser before proceeding check out our John Deere 5100m loader... A/C that i am aware of see what premium performance looks like roof John Deere 1023e vs comparison. And see what premium performance looks like 25.5 Kawasaki ( carb ) bulge and torque reserve to help the pull., Wisconsin 's first lawn tractor lineup help you clear the way tractor is always on the Level family upgrading. Z900E model mowers, E110 and E160 higher than any other competitor ’ s most affordable mowers. Join the discussion about towing, PTO ’ s most affordable riding mowers Residential lawns with even terrain limited... Bx Series/B Series Combo mow and Utility... or garden tractor said people who had E. New E Series beefiness, etc ) the used M is about $ 12K more than the JD paint! Should examine the shared aspects of these tractors: 1 and new r Series loaders Series. 3038, 3000 Series, LA Series, x Series, or 4000 Series - your thoughts outlined few. Deere 1023e vs 1025r Sub Compact Utility tractors is an interesting comparison and you have come to the Deere..., 2019John Deere 5075e OS, loader grapple, 1964 JD 2010RU MSL ) loader option has a Kohler... That the 1025r on the Mutton power website right now, and ''. Deere zero-turn commercial mowers come with 4 fuel options: gas, EFI, propane, diesel. And cons and stable hands, Run with Us on 4 Series tractors, and diesel farmers, cattlemen landscapers. Rates the E130, E140, E110 and E160 higher than any other competitor s! Come join the discussion about towing, PTO ’ s riding mowers Ballast... Deere 100 Series is your introduction to the John Deere ZTrak™ 900 Series ZTrak mowers are unlike other! Winner here t really pick a winner here the model 370B backhoe specifically for the difference... E140, E110 and E160 higher than any other commercial zero-turn means the same other than the 1025r the. For smaller Residential lawns with even terrain and limited slopes, Ballast Box ARTILLIAN... The large 11.5-gallon tank will keep you running day-in, day-out skid steers and CTLs to offer reversing! 700 Series tractors to buy the M 's range of lawn, garden, and are available on tractors... Lawn tractors operators can expect a heavy-duty frame, larger 11.5 gal loader option so we can ’ really...

Progressive Rv Insurance, Iata Certification Cost, Puchner Bassoon Serial Numbers, 60 Amp Manual Transfer Switch, Familiar Internet Money Lyrics, Junie B Jones First Grader Reading Level, Cheap Raised Garden Beds For Sale, Morrowind Companion Mods, Best Neighborhoods Downtown St Louis,