Differences • The sodium chloride crystal is a cube. We can specify the structure of cesium chloride, for example, with only four pieces of Structure Factor (Fhkl) 2( ) 1 ij i N ihu kv lw hkl i i Ffe • Describes how atomic arrangement (uvw) influences the intensity of the scattered beam. Structure Factor The general expression for : Now we apply this to various crystals. • Structure of NaCl CERAMIC STRUCTURE (1) This structure can be described as having FCC Bravais lattice with two ions (1Na+ and 1Cl-) ... • The unique relationship between such patterns and crystal structures provide a powerful tool for identification of the phase composition of powders and polycrystalline materials. Primitive Cells This is really simple! Crystal Structures Chapter 7 Wednesday, October 21, 2015. CsCl •Thinking about the unit cell as a three-dimensional graph allows us to describe the structure of a crystal with a remarkably small amount of information. 12.3, Callister 7e. • The water crystal is a hexagon. • Ittellsuswhichreflections(ie peaksIt tells us which reflections (i.e., peaks , hkl)to) to expect in a diffraction pattern. Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride(NaCl) NaCl is a ionic compound. From this image we can see why the CaCO 3 structure has a lower symmetry than that of NaCl. determining crystal structures beginning with NaCl, ZnS and diamond. →Octahedron Connectivity →Edge sharing octahedra 4 NaCl in unit cell. Zinc Blende (ZnS) Structure 170 Cl Cs = = − + r r Adapted from Fig. and one Cl ion. 1we will see that the basic building blocks of periodic structures can be more complicated than a single atom. ... NaCl Structure CCP with all octahedral holes filled Coordination= 6, 6 Cation Coord. AX Crystal Structures AX–Type Crystal Structures include NaCl, CsCl, and zinc blende 0. First, consider examples of crystals with a basis group of just one atom per lattice point, with atomic scattering factor f. The results are valid for any crystal system. Hence both Na and Cl are in ionic state. structure. • All of the faces of the sodium chloride crystal are square, but can have different number of ions: 4 (2 x 2 x 2), 9 (3 x 3 x 3), →Octahedron Anion Coord. The calcite (CaCO 3) crystal structure is shown above.Triangular CO 3 2-ions fill octahedral holes between the Ca 2+ ions (black spheres) in a distorted NaCl lattice. • Both the sodium chloride crystal and water crystal consist of repeating patterns. The Bravais lattice of NaCl is FCC with the basis containing one Na ion. As in NaCl, each ion is coordinated by six of the other kind. NaCl (salt shaker variety) Hexagonal Close Packed: unit cell. N = 1, so n 181 0. 1 (The text is taken from: Basic Solid State Chemistry, by Anthony R. West) 1.17 Some important structure types a) Rock salt (NaCl), zinc blende or sphalerite (ZnS), fluorite (CaF2), antifluorite (Na2O) These structures are considered together because they all have ccp/fcc anions and differ only in the positions of the cations. Cesium Chloride structure: ∴ cubicsites preferred So each Cs + has 8 neighboring Cl- 939 0. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been . The molecule is under equilibrium because, the attractive force due to ions is balanced by repulsive force due to electron clouds. For example in NaCl, the basic building block is composed of one Na and one Cl ion which is repeated in a cubic pattern to make the NaCl structure 2 The molecule is under equilibrium because, the attractive force due to ions is balanced by repulsive due. 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